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Most recent INEP activities

Census/Asbestos/E-Cigarettes/Ethics/Ukraine/Covid-19/Air pollution

News from EOM

Many individuals have been exposed to known lung carcinogens in their work, but, current enrolment criteria recommended by professional organizations in the USA and elsewhere rarely include occupational risk.

Welch LS, et al. Occup Environ Med 2019;76:137–142. doi:10.1136/oemed-2018-105431

“Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Five-year survival is 19% for all lung cancers and 55% for localised tumours; average 5-year survival for advanced cases with metastases is only 4.5%. The International Agency for Research on Cancer lists 13 agents with high likelihood of causing lung cancer: ionising radiation, asbestos, silica, nickel, cadmium, chromium, beryllium, arsenic, diesel exhaust, soot, bis(chloro-methyl) ether, coal tar pitch and sulfur mustard. Studies also suggest that there is a more than additive interaction between asbestos and cigarette smoking; it is not yet established if this interaction exists for other lung carcinogens as well”

 Using criteria that include occupational risk Welsh and her colleagues have detected a baseline rate of lung cancer equivalent to that found in the US National Lung Screening Trial, although less than half the cohort met smoking criteria used in that trial.

Early detection of lung cancer in a population at high risk due to occupation and smoking

by Laura S Welch, John M Dement, Kim Cranford, Janet Shorter, Patricia S Quinn, David K Madtes, Knut Ringen.

Systematic review and metaanalysis of greenspace exposure and health outcomes

The health benefits of the great outdoors: A systematic review and metaanalysis of greenspace exposure and health outcomes

Environmental ResearchVolume 166, October 2018, Pages 628-637

In a recent review Caoimhe Twohig-Bennett and  Andy Jones show that:

Greenspace exposure is associated with wide ranging health benefits, with meta-analyses results showing statistically significant associations with reduced diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, salivary cortisol, incidence of type II diabetes and stroke, all cause and cardiovascular mortality, as well as health-denoting associations with pregnancy outcomes, HRV, and HDL cholesterol, and self reported health. The findings of this systematic review suggest that the creation, regeneration and maintenance of accessible greenspaces and street greenery may form part of a multi-faceted approach to improve a wide range of health outcomes.

Towards the Integrated Study of Urban Climate, Air Pollution, and Public Health

by Jennifer Salmond, Clive E. Sabel ID and Sotiris Vardoulakis

Air pollution is not only toxic to the human body but also interacts with climate. Short lived climate pollutants (SLCP), such as black carbon and ozone, can exacerbate climate change, altering the frequency, duration, and location of heat waves and cold spells, storm intensity, precipitation patterns, and, possibly, ultra-violet radiation exposure, indirectly threatening urban lives and livelihoods. On the other hand, a warmer climate can have an impact on biogenic volatile organic compound emissions, the rate of atmospheric chemical reactions, and the depth of the atmospheric boundary layer, which all affect surface pollutant concentrations. 

The high probability of climate change that presents significant challenges to the future resilience of urban areas and the protection of public health, as urban populations are projected to be exposed to higher temperatures than are currently experienced. One of the keys to managing air pollution, climate change, and public health concerns effectively in urban areas is to improve our understanding of the ways in which urban land use affects human health outcomes.

Healthy-Polis (International Consortium for Urban Environmental Health & Sustainability) special issue on Urban Climate, Air Pollution, and Public Health has been published in Climate and is now available online (open access) at: