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Hazards of E-cigarettes/Climate change/WHO Air Quality Guidelines/Ethical issues in science

Lykke Forchhammer, Peter Møller, Ingunn Skogstad Riddervold, Jakob Bønløkke, Andreas Massling, Torben Sigsgaard and Steffen Loft

Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 2012, 9:7

Background: Exposure to wood smoke is associated with respiratory symptoms, whereas knowledge on systemic effects is limited. We investigated effects on systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and microvascular function (MVF) after controlled wood smoke exposure.

Methods: In a randomised, double-blinded, cross-over study 20 non-smoking atopic subjects were exposed at rest to 14, 220, or 354 ?g/m3 of particles from a well-burning modern wood stove for 3 h in a climate controlled chamber with 2 week intervals. We investigated the level of oxidatively damaged DNA, inflammatory markers and adhesion molecules before and 0, 6 and 20 h after exposure. Six h after exposure we measured MVF non-invasively by digital peripheral artery tonometry following arm ischemia.

Results: The MVF score was unaltered after inhalation of clean air (1.58 ± 0.07; mean ± SEM), low (1.51 ± 0.07) or high (1.61 ± 0.09) concentrations of wood smoke particles in atopic subjects, whereas unexposed non-atopic subjects had higher score (1.91 ± 0.09). The level of oxidatively damaged DNA, mRNA of ITGAL, CCL2, TNF, IL6, IL8, HMOX1, and OGG1 and surface marker molecules ICAM1, ITGAL and L-selectin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were not affected by inhalation of wood smoke particles.

Conclusions: Exposure to wood smoke had no effect on markers of oxidative stress, DNA damage, cell adhesion, cytokines or MVF in atopic subjects.